Pigment Dyes

Pigment Dyes for fabric

Dyes And Pigments 3115Photo by: Marina Ignatova

Dyes and pigments are substances that impart color to a product. The definition of colorant is frequently used for both dyes (also referred to as dyestuffs) and pigments. The most important difference between dyes and pigments is solubility (the tendency to dissolve in a liquid, particularly liquid). Dyes are often soluble—or may be made to be soluble—in water. Once a dye is dissolved in water, the materials to be dyed are immersed in the dye solution. While the material soaks up the dye and dries, it develops a color. If material then maintains that shade after being washed, the dye is considered colorfast.

Pigments are generally not soluble in water, oil, or any other common solvents. To-be put on a product, they have been very first ground into a superb powder and thoroughly mixed with some fluid, labeled as the dispersing representative or car. The pigment-dispersing broker combination is then spread on product become colored. Due to the fact dispersing broker dries away, the pigment is held in place regarding material.

In most cases, dyes are used for coloring textiles, paper, alongside substances, while pigments are used for coloring paints, inks, cosmetic makeup products, and plastics.


Numerous dyes can be had from all-natural sources, including plants, creatures, and nutrients. Indeed, humans have understood about and utilized natural dyes considering that the dawn of civilization. Red iron oxide, as an example, is certainly regularly color cloth and pottery and embellish the body. These days, tees colored with natural red dirt (iron oxide) tend to be popular among tourists on Hawaii's area of Kauai. Red soil imparts an excellent orangish-red color to fabric that is nearly impossible to clean out. Other normal dyes consist of sepia, acquired from cuttlefish, and Indian yellow, obtained through the urine of cows which have been force-fed mango leaves.

Some normal dyes are expensive to create, tough to get, or challenging use. Royal purple got its name since it comes only through the tropical murex snail. Numerous snails were necessary to produce even smallest quantity of dye that just royalty could manage to utilize it. The dye known as indigo, gotten through the Indigofera plant, imparts an attractive blue color to product, but it is insoluble in liquid. It must very first be transformed into another type of (reduced) substance form that is yellowish and is dissolvable in liquid. For the reason that form, the indigo can be utilized for dyeing. When attached with a material and exposed to air, the yellow form of indigo is transformed straight back (oxidized) to its initial blue type.

a transformation in colorant record occurred in 1856, whenever English chemist William Henry Perkin (1838–1907) discovered a method to manufacture a dye inside laboratory. That dye, mauve, had been created from products within typical coal-tar. Perkin's advancement showed chemists that dyes and pigments might be produced synthetically (by people in a lab). It was no further necessary to search out natural basic products for use as colorants.

Fabric dye. (Reproduced by permission regarding the stock exchange.)Today, most dyes and pigments are produced synthetically. These items tend to be simpler much less costly to create than tend to be natural basic products. Furthermore, their particular colors are far more constant from group to batch as compared to numerous examples of all-natural colorants.


Dyes is placed on materials in lots of ways. The best strategy should break down the dye in liquid then immerse the material in the dye solution. An individual who unintentionally stains an item of clothing by spilling red wine onto it has actually actually colored it, although most likely not as intended. Any dye that attaches itself to a material this way is called a primary dye. The dye sticks into product by creating chemical bonds that survive even with washing.

Whether a dye will attach it self right to a product or perhaps not is dependent on the chemical nature of both the dye and product being dyed. Some compounds will color silk yet not wool, or cotton yet not polyester. Every

Fabric dye. (Reproduced by permission of

The Stock Market


dyeing procedure, consequently, requires finding products that a colored ingredient will attach itself.

Mordant dyeing involves the using a substance that combines because of the dye to make an insoluble element (indicating it is not dissolved). Suppose dye B will not stick right to material A. to color fabric A with dye B, a 3rd material—the mordant (M)—will have to be introduced. M will adhere (stick) to both the and B.

In the mordant procedure, the mordant is first applied to the material. Following the mordant has dried out, the dye is included. The dye sticks on mordant, and the material is able to accept the color associated with the dye, developing an insoluble relationship.


Pigments tend to be placed on an area as a mixture that constantly is made from at least two components (the pigment itself additionally the vehicle) and often many others elements. For example, a thinner such as for example turpentine is usually added to certain combination to make it better to apply. Among easiest shows you imagine, after that, might consist of red iron-oxide, linseed oil (the vehicle), and turpentine (the thinner).

The objective of the car within blend is carry the pigment onto the surface, much as motor vehicles carry men and women and products. A thinner is normally required because many vehicles are dense, viscous (gluey) products being hard to apply with a brush.

After the pigment/vehicle/thinner combination was placed on a surface, two modifications occur. Very first, the thinner evaporates leaving the pigment/vehicle blend uniformly spread on the surface. After that, the car gradually undergoes a chemical change (oxidation) that converts it from a thick liquid to a great. Because the pigment particles tend to be caught in the hardened vehicle, a thin, difficult skin of colored product becomes attached to the area.

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