We'll have a look at:
- Fibers and Yarns
- Structural Design of Textiles
- Surface Design of Textiles
- Bast: Fiber from plant stems, particularly flax, hemp, jute, ramie.
Cotton:Fiber from seed tresses of this cotton fiber plant, earliest recognised in India and south usa before 2, 000 B.C. Flax: Plant which creates the bast fiber always make linen yarn and cloth; originated from the Mediterranean region; earliest known use by Swiss Lake Dwellers c. 8, 000 B.C.; features an all natural "s" twist.
Cord: Term for a yarn which two or more plied yarns tend to be turned collectively. (see drawing)
Cotton: good veggie seed hairs or fibers which surround the cluster of seeds to which these are generally attached; developed in warmer temperate and exotic areas for the good white (occasionally brown) cellulose fibre. Originated in Asia; oldest recorded use within Asia (Mohenjo Daro) c. 3500 B.C. and Peru c. 3, 000 B.C. Cotton has actually a normal "z" perspective.
Linen: Term for yarn and fabric made of flax.
Ply: is the number of single spun yarn elements turned together to create a heavier and more powerful yarn, labeled as a plied yarn. (see drawing)
Sericulture: Term for process of raising silkworms and creating silk yarn from their particular cocoons.
Silk: A continuous protein filament secreted by particular larvae to make their particular cocoons. The species Bombyx mori is the variety most often cultivated, as it creates specifically good, lustrous, white materials. Silk production was created in China c. 2700 B.C.
- Tussah is many different silk produced by a types of crazy silkworm; the texture regarding the silk is rougher, along with is tan to brown, while the silk dyes less quickly than commercial silk.
Spindle: a slim rod which is rotated so that you can perspective materials into yarn. A drop spindle has actually a weight at one end to enhance its rotation.
Spinning-wheel: device accustomed twist materials into yarn, where the spindle is switched by the use of a wheel.
- Charka wheel: First particular spinning-wheel, developed in Asia c. 750 A.D. which a the spindle ended up being attached to a-frame and rotated in the shape of a wheel with a handle.
- Great wheel or Jersey wheel: European version of the Charka wheel; bigger in dimensions, and operated while standing.
- Saxony wheel: Treadle operated spinning-wheel where the spindle has a computer device labeled as a flyer. Developed in Europe after the 15th century, the saxony wheel greatly increased performance.
- Twist: Term for the treatment important to the whirling of yarn from fibers. Angle is "s" or "z" (see diagram). Select materials spin better in one course due to their own natural angle; Flax spins tighter in "s" course and Cotton spins stronger in "z" course. Wool spins equally really in a choice of course. Direction of spin can also be a cultural habit of the spinner that will aid in the identification of historical textiles.
Wool: typically is the fine, smooth, scaly materials since the skin of sheep, though it may occasionally be applied as well to mention toward hair regarding the Angora goat (Mohair), the Cashmere goat, the Camel, while the Alpaca, or Vicuna (pets for the Andean plateau). Sheep were first domesticated in prehistoric times in Central Asia, while the using wool textiles ended up being widespread in ancient times.