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Textile dyeing techniques

This newly completed interdisciplinary doctoral study done in the Centre for Textile Conservation and Specialized Art background, University of Glasgow, built-up the very first full picture of textile dyeing approaches to the Ming and Qing Dynasties (1368-1911), Asia, which not just considerably added to textile record, it is in addition very helpful the better understanding, convention and conservation of historic and archaeological textiles of this time period.
Through the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China, imperial textile handicrafts achieved its manufacturing top. However, little was understood about dyeing techniques in this time period aside from couple of isolated studies on dye meals or dyestuffs on fabrics. This doctoral research lay out an unprecedented comprehensive examination of dyeing practices of Ming and Qing Dynasties, by incorporating the archival analysis of documented dye meals, the chemical evaluation of dyestuffs on historic and archaeological textiles, and art historic, botanical and colour scientific studies.

Revolutionary substance and botanical study on traditional Chinese dyestuffs
Fundamental research from the substance characterisation of guide dyestuffs and their botanical provenance ended up being done for precise comprehension of the dyestuffs and robust recognition of dye resources. Ultra-high performance fluid chromatography coupled with Photodiode range detector and Mass spectrometer (UHPLC-PDA-MS), and three various extraction methods were very first placed on dyed silk examples prepared with 22 specific guide dyestuffs to separate your lives and determine their characteristic components. The initial database of substance pages of dyestuffs in old Asia ended up being founded. Furthermore, the esterification and isomerisation habits associated with dye constituents of gallnut, gardenia and saffron, as well as the dye structure of acorn glass dyed silk had been clarified for the first time, that will help better identification of dye resources containing tannins and crocins (Fig. 2). 6-Hydroxyrubiadin and its particular glycosides were unprecedentedly reported on a dyed test with Rubia cordifolia from China, which plays a role in the provenance of different Rubia types as dye sources in Asia. Furthermore, ethnographic dyed examples and dyestuffs from Li group in south Asia were chemically studied as modern references and in contrast to the above mentioned outcomes, marking the beginning of the chemical research of ethnographic dyeing in China.
Another significant innovation had been integrating research from botany and Chinese herbal medicine with analysis into dyeing properties to offer botanical provenance for dyestuffs. The botanical provenance of 12 significant historical Chinese dye plants had been achieved for the first time, and five instances of confusions in the naming of dyestuffs in historic documents were clarified, including, the mixed-up of hong hua (safflower) and fan hong hua (saffron). Grounds for the confusion of plant brands therefore the level of category were discussed.

Dyestuffs and dyeing techniques uncovered from first systematic research of main resources of reported dye dishes and dyes on historic and archaeological fabrics
Four crucial historic dye manuscripts were methodically analyzed, including Duoneng bishi (different arts in everyday activity) and Tiangong kaiwu (Chinese Technology within the Seventeenth Century, Fig. 3) regarding the Ming Dynasty, and Neiwufu quanzong dang’an, Zhiranju buce (Complete File of the Imperial home, number of the Weaving and Dyeing Bureau) and Bu jing (The Cloth Vintage) of the Qing Dynasty, correspondingly tracking the dye recipes of 13, 27, 40 and 66 colours concerning 14, 13, 11 and 18 dyes. The previous two manuscripts are incorporated works on different crafts published towards the public, whilst the latter two manuscripts tend to be specialised books on textile handicrafts, mostly for interior circulation in the textile production institutes. In line with the study of the reliabilities of those sources, the dyestuffs and dyeing techniques recorded were in comparison and analysed.

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